L49: Gruithuisen Delta & Gamma

Sketch made on 22 November 2015, UT 17:00, using a Sky-Watcher 10″ and a TeleVue Nagler zoom 3-6 mm. Seeing improving to 4/5. South is up.

Lunar domes Mons Gruithuisen Delta and Gamma can be found in the moon’s northwestern quadrant, between prominent crater Mairan, and not so prominent Gruithuisen (neither of which are captured in this sketch). The two domes are the features in the center of the sketch, with Gruithuisen Delta to the left and Gruithuisen Gamma, which has been said to resemble an upturned bathtub, to the right.

During the observation my eye was drawn to a small feature just north of Gamma. It actually consists of two small adjacent craters, but with the sun angle at the time of the observation, they looked like one crater Timaoes bridgewith a very thin and shiny white ‘bridge’ traversing the darkness of the crater’s interior. The view was truly mesmerizing, especially as the feature after some time seemed to detach itself from the crater wall. There is of course the infamous O’Neill’s bridge on the western shore of Mare Crisium, and it struck me how easy it is to be fooled by the moon’s ever changing lightning conditions.


L 62: Mons Rümker

Rising 1100 meters above the mare in the northwestern part of Oceanus Procellarum are a concentration of lunar domes collectively known as Mons Rümker. The mountain is 70 km in diameter and astronomers have counted 30 domes on it’s slopes.

Observed on 25 October 2015, UT 18:30, using a SkyWatcher 10″ and a TeleVue Nagler 3-6 mm zoom. Seeing 3/5 deteriorating to 2/5. South is up.

Observed at low sun, but with mediocre seeing, I was able to readily discern one of the domes — the central peak in the sketch. Comparing my sketch to the image from Lunar Orbiter 4, inserted below, I seem to have caught traces of at least three additional domes.

Image from the Lunar Orbiter 4 acquired 1967. The image is rotated to match the sketch.

L42: Marius Hills

The largest gathering of volcanic domes on the moon can be found in the middle of Oceanus Procellarum and close to the ring-plain Marius. Squeezed into an area of approximately 200 km in diameter the Marius Hills contains about 300 domes, half of the moon’s known population. The domes are just a few hundred meters high and thus best observed under low sun.

The sketch was made under a waxing gibbous moon, just a few days from full, and the sun angle was perfect for highlighting the many domes. Sketching them was another matter, quite cumbersome at that. Marius is the crater to the middle left in the sketch. Top right is the end of the Reiner Gamma swirl.

Sketch made on 25 September 2015, UT 20:30, using a SkyWatcher 10″ and a TeleVue Nagler 3-6 mm zoom. Seeing 4/5. South is up.

370In 2009 the Japanese Selene mission found what might be a sky light to an underground lava tunnel in the Hills. The Marius Pit is located close to the rightmost dome in the sketch, but since it is just 65 meters in diameter it is well beyond the resolution of my scope. A fly-over movie from JAXA can be found here. Lava tunnels might be an option for a future lunar base, and apparently there is advanced plans for a private moon mission to target the Marius Pit.